ecpg - embedded SQL C preprocessor
is the embedded SQL preprocessor for C
programs. It converts C programs with embedded SQL statements to
normal C code by replacing the SQL invocations with special
function calls. The output files can then be processed with any C
compiler tool chain.
will convert each input file given on the
command line to the corresponding C output file. If an input file
name does not have any extension,
assumed. The file's extension will be replaced
to construct the output file name.
But the output file name can be overridden using the
If an input file name is just
reads the program from standard input
(and writes to standard output, unless that is overridden
This reference page does not describe the embedded SQL language. See Chapter 36 for more information on that topic.
accepts the following command-line
Automatically generate certain C code from SQL code. Currently, this works for
EXEC SQL TYPE.
Set a compatibility mode.
Define a C preprocessor symbol.
Process header files. When this option is specified, the output file extension becomes
.c, and the default input file extension is
.pgc. Also, the
-coption is forced on.
Parse system include files as well.
Specify an additional include path, used to find files included via
EXEC SQL INCLUDE. Defaults are
/usr/local/include, the PostgreSQL include directory which is defined at compile time (default:
/usr/include, in that order.
ecpgshould write all its output to the given
-o -to send all output to standard output.
Selects run-time behavior.
Optioncan be one of the following:
Do not use indicators but instead use special values to represent null values. Historically there have been databases using this approach.
Prepare all statements before using them. Libecpg will keep a cache of prepared statements and reuse a statement if it gets executed again. If the cache runs full, libecpg will free the least used statement.
Allow question mark as placeholder for compatibility reasons. This used to be the default long ago.
Turn on autocommit of transactions. In this mode, each SQL command is automatically committed unless it is inside an explicit transaction block. In the default mode, commands are committed only when
EXEC SQL COMMITis issued.
Print additional information including the version and the "include" path.
Print the ecpg version and exit.
Show help about ecpg command line arguments, and exit.
When compiling the preprocessed C code files, the compiler needs to
be able to find the
header files in the
include directory. Therefore, you might
have to use the
option when invoking the compiler
Programs using C code with embedded SQL have to be linked against
library, for example using the
The value of either of these directories that is appropriate for the installation can be found out using pg_config .
If you have an embedded SQL C source file named
, you can create an executable
program using the following sequence of commands:
ecpg prog1.pgc cc -I/usr/local/pgsql/include -c prog1.c cc -o prog1 prog1.o -L/usr/local/pgsql/lib -lecpg