34.15. The Password File
in a user's home directory can
contain passwords to
be used if the connection requires a password (and no password has been
specified otherwise). On Microsoft Windows the file is named
refers to the Application Data subdirectory in
the user's profile).
Alternatively, the password file to use can be specified
using the connection parameter
or the environment variable
This file should contain lines of the following format:
(You can add a reminder comment to the file by copying the line above and
preceding it with
Each of the first four fields can be a literal value, or
, which matches anything. The password field from
the first line that matches the current connection parameters will be
used. (Therefore, put more-specific entries first when you are using
wildcards.) If an entry needs to contain
, escape this character with
The host name field is matched to the
parameter if that is specified, otherwise to
parameter if that is specified; if neither
are given then the host name
is searched for.
The host name
is also searched for when
the connection is a Unix-domain socket connection and
's default socket directory path.
In a standby server, a database field of
matches streaming replication connections made to the master server.
The database field is of limited usefulness otherwise, because users have
the same password for all databases in the same cluster.
On Unix systems, the permissions on a password file must
disallow any access to world or group; achieve this by a command such as
chmod 0600 ~/.pgpass
. If the permissions are less
strict than this, the file will be ignored. On Microsoft Windows, it
is assumed that the file is stored in a directory that is secure, so
no special permissions check is made.