3. Conventions

The following conventions are used in the synopsis of a command: brackets ( [ and ] ) indicate optional parts. Braces ( { and } ) and vertical lines ( | ) indicate that you must choose one alternative. Dots ( ... ) mean that the preceding element can be repeated. All other symbols, including parentheses, should be taken literally.

Where it enhances the clarity, SQL commands are preceded by the prompt => , and shell commands are preceded by the prompt $ . Normally, prompts are not shown, though.

An administrator is generally a person who is in charge of installing and running the server. A user could be anyone who is using, or wants to use, any part of the PostgreSQL system. These terms should not be interpreted too narrowly; this book does not have fixed presumptions about system administration procedures.