Customize a Postgres Cluster
Postgres is known for its ease of customization; PGO helps you to roll out changes efficiently and without disruption. After resizing the resources for our Postgres cluster in the previous step of this tutorial, lets see how we can tweak our Postgres configuration to optimize its usage of them.
Custom Postgres Configuration
Part of the trick of managing multiple instances in a Postgres cluster is ensuring all of the configuration changes are propagated to each of them. This is where PGO helps: when you make a Postgres configuration change for a cluster, PGO will apply it to all of the Postgres instances.
For example, in our previous step we added CPU and memory limits of
4Gi respectively. Let’s tweak some of the Postgres settings to better use our new resources. We can do this in the
spec.patroni.dynamicConfiguration section. Here is an example updated manifest that tweaks several settings:
apiVersion: postgres-operator.crunchydata.com/v1beta1 kind: PostgresCluster metadata: name: hippo spec: image: registry.developers.crunchydata.com/crunchydata/crunchy-postgres:ubi8-14.8-3 postgresVersion: 14 instances: - name: instance1 replicas: 2 resources: limits: cpu: 2.0 memory: 4Gi dataVolumeClaimSpec: accessModes: - "ReadWriteOnce" resources: requests: storage: 1Gi backups: pgbackrest: image: registry.developers.crunchydata.com/crunchydata/crunchy-pgbackrest:ubi8-2.45-3 repos: - name: repo1 volume: volumeClaimSpec: accessModes: - "ReadWriteOnce" resources: requests: storage: 1Gi patroni: dynamicConfiguration: postgresql: parameters: max_parallel_workers: 2 max_worker_processes: 2 shared_buffers: 1GB work_mem: 2MB
In particular, we added the following to
patroni: dynamicConfiguration: postgresql: parameters: max_parallel_workers: 2 max_worker_processes: 2 shared_buffers: 1GB work_mem: 2MB
Apply these updates to your Postgres cluster with the following command:
kubectl apply -k kustomize/postgres
PGO will go and apply these settings, restarting each Postgres instance when necessary. You can verify that the changes are present using the Postgres
SHOW command, e.g.
should yield something similar to:
work_mem ---------- 2MB
All connections in PGO use TLS to encrypt communication between components. PGO sets up a PKI and certificate authority (CA) that allow you create verifiable endpoints. However, you may want to bring a different TLS infrastructure based upon your organizational requirements. The good news: PGO lets you do this!
If you want to use the TLS infrastructure that PGO provides, you can skip the rest of this section and move on to learning how to apply software updates.
How to Customize TLS
There are a few different TLS endpoints that can be customized for PGO, including those of the Postgres cluster and controlling how Postgres instances authenticate with each other. Let’s look at how we can customize TLS by defining
spec.customTLSSecret, used to both identify the cluster and encrypt communications; and
spec.customReplicationTLSSecret, used for replication authentication.
(For more information on the
spec.customReplicationTLSSecret fields, see the
To customize the TLS for a Postgres cluster, you will need to create two Secrets in the Namespace of your Postgres cluster. One of these Secrets will be the
customTLSSecret and the other will be the
customReplicationTLSSecret. Both secrets contain a TLS key (
tls.key), TLS certificate (
tls.crt) and CA certificate (
ca.crt) to use.
spec.customTLSSecret is provided you must also provide
spec.customReplicationTLSSecret and both must contain the same
The custom TLS and custom replication TLS Secrets should contain the following fields (though see below for a workaround if you cannot control the field names of the Secret’s
data: ca.crt: <value> tls.crt: <value> tls.key: <value>
For example, if you have files named
hippo.crt stored on your local machine, you could run the following command to create a Secret from those files:
kubectl create secret generic -n postgres-operator hippo-cluster.tls \ --from-file=ca.crt=ca.crt \ --from-file=tls.key=hippo.key \ --from-file=tls.crt=hippo.crt
After you create the Secrets, you can specify the custom TLS Secret in your
postgrescluster.postgres-operator.crunchydata.com custom resource. For example, if you created a
hippo-cluster.tls Secret and a
hippo-replication.tls Secret, you would add them to your Postgres cluster:
spec: customTLSSecret: name: hippo-cluster.tls customReplicationTLSSecret: name: hippo-replication.tls
If you’re unable to control the key-value pairs in the Secret, you can create a mapping to tell the Postgres Operator what key holds the expected value. That would look similar to this:
spec: customTLSSecret: name: hippo.tls items: - key: <tls.crt key in the referenced hippo.tls Secret> path: tls.crt - key: <tls.key key in the referenced hippo.tls Secret> path: tls.key - key: <ca.crt key in the referenced hippo.tls Secret> path: ca.crt
For instance, if the
hippo.tls Secret had the
tls.crt in a key named
tls.key in a key named
hippo-tls.key, and the
ca.crt in a key named
then your mapping would look like:
spec: customTLSSecret: name: hippo.tls items: - key: hippo-tls.crt path: tls.crt - key: hippo-tls.key path: tls.key - key: hippo-ca.crt path: ca.crt
Note: Although the custom TLS and custom replication TLS Secrets share the same
ca.crt, they do not share the same
spec.customTLSSecretTLS certificate should have a Common Name (CN) setting that matches the primary Service name. This is the name of the cluster suffixed with
-primary. For example, for our
hippocluster this would be
spec.customReplicationTLSSecretTLS certificate should have a Common Name (CN) setting that matches
_crunchyrepl, which is the preset replication user.
As with the other changes, you can roll out the TLS customizations with
There are several ways to add your own custom Kubernetes Labels to your Postgres cluster.
- Cluster: You can apply labels to any PGO managed object in a cluster by editing the
spec.metadata.labelssection of the custom resource.
- Postgres: You can apply labels to a Postgres instance set and its objects by editing
- pgBackRest: You can apply labels to pgBackRest and its objects by editing
- PgBouncer: You can apply labels to PgBouncer connection pooling instances by editing
There are several ways to add your own custom Kubernetes Annotations to your Postgres cluster.
- Cluster: You can apply annotations to any PGO managed object in a cluster by editing the
spec.metadata.annotationssection of the custom resource.
- Postgres: You can apply annotations to a Postgres instance set and its objects by editing
- pgBackRest: You can apply annotations to pgBackRest and its objects by editing
- PgBouncer: You can apply annotations to PgBouncer connection pooling instances by editing
Pod Priority Classes
PGO allows you to use pod priority classes to indicate the relative importance of a pod by setting a
priorityClassName field on your Postgres cluster. This can be done as follows:
- Instances: Priority is defined per instance set and is applied to all Pods in that instance set by editing the
spec.instances.priorityClassNamesection of the custom resource.
- Dedicated Repo Host: Priority defined under the repoHost section of the spec is applied to the dedicated repo host by editing the
spec.backups.pgbackrest.repoHost.priorityClassNamesection of the custom resource.
- PgBouncer: Priority is defined under the pgBouncer section of the spec and will apply to all PgBouncer Pods by editing the
spec.proxy.pgBouncer.priorityClassNamesection of the custom resource.
- Backup (manual and scheduled): Priority is defined under the
spec.backups.pgbackrest.jobs.priorityClassNamesection and applies that priority to all pgBackRest backup Jobs (manual and scheduled).
- Restore (data source or in-place): Priority is defined for either a “data source” restore or an in-place restore by editing the
spec.dataSource.postgresCluster.priorityClassNamesection of the custom resource.
- Data Migration: The priority defined for the first instance set in the spec (array position 0) is used for the PGDATA and WAL migration Jobs. The pgBackRest repo migration Job will use the priority class applied to the repoHost.
Separate WAL PVCs
PostgreSQL commits transactions by storing changes in its Write-Ahead Log (WAL). Because the way WAL files are accessed and
utilized often differs from that of data files, and in high-performance situations, it can desirable to put WAL files on separate storage volume. With PGO, this can be done by adding
walVolumeClaimSpec block to your desired instance in your PostgresCluster spec, either when your cluster is created or anytime thereafter:
spec: instances: - name: instance walVolumeClaimSpec: accessModes: - "ReadWriteMany" resources: requests: storage: 1Gi
This volume can be removed later by removing the
walVolumeClaimSpec section from the instance. Note that when changing the WAL directory, care is taken so as not to lose any WAL files. PGO only
deletes the PVC once there are no longer any WAL files on the previously configured volume.
Database Initialization SQL
PGO can run SQL for you as part of the cluster creation and initialization process. PGO runs the SQL using the psql client so you can use meta-commands to connect to different databases, change error handling, or set and use variables. Its capabilities are described in the psql documentation.
Initialization SQL ConfigMap
The Postgres cluster spec accepts a reference to a ConfigMap containing your init SQL file. Update your cluster spec to include the ConfigMap name,
spec.databaseInitSQL.name, and the data key,
spec.databaseInitSQL.key, for your SQL file. For example, if you create your ConfigMap with the following command:
kubectl -n postgres-operator create configmap hippo-init-sql --from-file=init.sql=/path/to/init.sql
You would add the following section to your Postgrescluster spec:
spec: databaseInitSQL: key: init.sql name: hippo-init-sql
After you add the ConfigMap reference to your spec, apply the change with
kubectl apply -k kustomize/postgres. PGO will create your
hippo cluster and run your initialization SQL once the cluster has started. You can verify that your SQL has been run by checking the
databaseInitSQL status on your Postgres cluster. While the status is set, your init SQL will not be run again. You can check cluster status with the
kubectl describe command:
kubectl -n postgres-operator describe postgresclusters.postgres-operator.crunchydata.com hippo
databaseInitSQL is defined in your cluster status, verify database objects have been created as expected. After verifying, we recommend removing the
spec.databaseInitSQL field from your spec. Removing the field from the spec will also remove
databaseInitSQL from the cluster status.
PGO uses the psql interactive terminal to execute SQL statements in your database. Statements are passed in using standard input and the filename flag (e.g.
psql -f -).
SQL statements are executed as superuser in the default maintenance database. This means you have full control to create database objects, extensions, or run any SQL statements that you might need.
Integration with User and Database Management
If you are creating users or databases, please see the User/Database Management documentation. Databases created through the user management section of the spec can be referenced in your initialization sql. For example, if a database
zoo is defined:
spec: users: - name: hippo databases: - "zoo"
You can connect to
zoo by adding the following
psql meta-command to your SQL:
\c zoo create table t_zoo as select s, md5(random()::text) from generate_Series(1,5) s;
BEGIN; create table t_random as select s, md5(random()::text) from generate_Series(1,5) s; COMMIT;
PSQL Exit Code and Database Init SQL Status
The exit code from
psql will determine when the
databaseInitSQL status is set. When
0 the status will be set and SQL will not be run again. When
psql returns with an error exit code the status will not be set. PGO will continue attempting to execute the SQL as part of its reconcile loop until
psql returns normally. If
psql exits with a failure, you will need to edit the file in your ConfigMap to ensure your SQL statements will lead to a successful
psql return. The easiest way to make live changes to your ConfigMap is to use the following
kubectl edit command:
kubectl -n <cluster-namespace> edit configmap hippo-init-sql
Be sure to transfer any changes back over to your local file. Another option is to make changes in your local file and use
kubectl --dry-run to create a template and pipe the output into
kubectl create configmap hippo-init-sql --from-file=init.sql=/path/to/init.sql --dry-run=client -o yaml | kubectl apply -f -
kubectl apply -k kustomize/postgres).
To ensure that
psql returns a failure exit code when your SQL commands fail, set the
ON_ERROR_STOP variable as part of your SQL file:
\set ON_ERROR_STOP \echo Any error will lead to exit code 3 create table t_random as select s, md5(random()::text) from generate_Series(1,5) s;
Changes Not Applied
If your Postgres configuration settings are not present, ensure that you are using the syntax that Postgres expects. You can see this in the Postgres configuration documentation.